Nyepi is a Day of Silence that is commemorated every Isakawarsa or Saka new year according to Balinese calendar. The next Nyepi Day or quite day will be celebrated on 27 March 2017, celebrated new years of Caka 1939, Soma Wage Kulantir. No cars, no flight, no tours, no fire and no artivities. One day before Nyepi, usually celebrated by Ogoh-Ogoh parade. Inspirated by Hindu philosophy, Ogoh-ogoh created endeavours based on Balinese Hinduism normally have form of mythological beings, mostly demons like Rangda, Leak and other.
Nyepi Day is calculated based on Saka Calender (Balinese calender). One year of Saka calender has 12 months (sasih). Each sasih consists of 35 days which is usually has one full moon (Purnama) and one dark moon (Tilem). There are 15 days from Purnama to reach Tilem. The 9th of dark moon (Tilem) is called Tilem Kesanga (9th). One day after the Tilem Kesanga is the frst day of Balinese calender (Caka New Year). On this day is celebrated as the Nyepi Day.
Nyepi Day is not set (what date we want) by Balinese or government but based on logic calculation of Caka Calender. The next years Nyepi Day can be also calculated using this pattern. As the Gregorian calender has 365 days a year thats why Nyepi Day is not at the same day or date every year but usually on March or April.
Other temple ceremony days ( Galungan, Kuningan, etc) are celebrated every 6 months or Balinese calender or 35 x 6 days = 210 days. This ceremony is always at the same day but not the same dates. Ex : Galungan is always on Wednesday ( Budha - Kliwon - Dungulan).
The moon is 30 days cycle. The guidance for Nyepi Day is when the 1st day of 10th month of Saka Calender or Sasih Kedasa which is mostly in March (Gregorian). Nyepi Day in 2019 will be on 05 April. As informed earlier that Saka Calender follow its guidance for day(penanggal), week (wuku), month (sasih), year (Saka).
The ritual in Bali on Nyepi day as below:
- The Melasti Ritual performed in Pura / Balinese temple near the sea (Pura Segara) and meant to purify Arca, Pratima, and Pralingga (sacred objects) belongs to several temples, also to acquire sacred water from the sea. This ritual performed at the 3-4 previous day dedicated to Sanghyang Widhi Wasa and is performed at the beach to respect them as the owner of The Land and Sea.
- The Bhuta Yajna Ritual is performed in order to vanquish the negative elements and create balance with God, Mankind, and Nature. The ritual also meant to appease Batara Kala by Pecaruan offering. Devout Hindu Balinese villages usually make ogoh-ogoh, demonic statues made of bamboo and paper symbolizing negative elements or malevolent spirits. After the ogoh-ogoh have been paraded around the village, the Ngrupuk ritual takes place, which involves burning the ogoh-ogoh.
- The Nyepi Rituals is performed with the following conditions:
- Amati Geni: No fire/light, including no electricity
- Amati Karya: No working
- Amati Lelunganan: No travelling
- Amati Lelanguan: Fasting and no revelry/self-entertainment
- The Yoga/Brata Ritual starts at 6:00 AM (e.g. March 26, 2009) and continues to 6:00 AM the next day.
- The Ngebak Agni/Labuh Brata Ritual is performed for all Hindus to forgive each other and to welcome the new days to come.
- The Dharma Shanti Rituals is performed as the Nyepi Day or "Day of Silence."